Our speaker insights on servant leadership and 9 other styles to compare yourself to
“Bad leaders give bad orders.
Good leaders give good orders.
Great leaders create a team that doesn't need orders..” – L. David Marquet, former U.S. Navy captain (pictured)
Leadership style doesn’t normally endanger lives. But faced with an unfamiliar nuclear submarine, L. David Marquet discovered his style of leadership potentially put his crew in danger.
In our interview, the former commander and author of Turn the Ship Around and Leadership is Language shared how he'd given an order that was impossible to action on the Santa Fe sub, yet the crew still tried to carry it out because he was their leader.
“All my leadership training was that leaders were the decision makers and the order givers,” he said. “The crew tried to do [the order] – despite knowing full well they couldn’t do it! It stopped me in my tracks.”
David Marquet’s U.S. Navy training was not just on another type of sub, it was in the command-and-control, autocratic style of leadership, one of 10 types of leadership style we discuss in this article. Here you’ll discover how David Marquet switched his style of leadership to one that was SO effective 7 Habits of Highly Effective People author Stephen Covey described him as leading “the most empowered organisation he’d seen anywhere.” Not only that, you will be guided to find your own leadership style.
Why is leadership style so critical?
Research by Korn Ferry Hay Group shows an up to 30% increase in business performance can be directly attributable to the climate that leaders create through their style of leadership. You may have been a great worker, but it is your leadership style (and all your leadership skills and qualities) that makes you an effective or ineffective leader.
Perhaps you’re thinking “My leadership is changing” or “I can’t describe my leadership style” – and that’s fine. Leadership styles aren’t fixed, but characteristics of each style (such as decisiveness and communication) are important in managing others, especially when you hit challenges.
Ready to pinpoint ‘Which leadership style am I?’ Try to recognise your traits in the 10 most common styles below.....
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Captain Marquet wasn’t the only one taught this type of leadership.
"90% of leaders are still using an autocratic, command-and-control style of leadership," says Trust and Inspire author Stephen M.R. Covey. In Stephen’s masterclass for Growth Faculty, we learned of “enlightened command-and-control”, which Stephen describes as "a softer but still autocratic top-down leadership style that sees people as assets (ie. things to be managed, leveraged, controlled, or used)."
Employees don’t have input into decisions and are expected to act upon orders from above.
Pros of autocratic leadership –
· You work well as a sole proprietor.
· You’re nimble at decision-making (which can boost productivity by smashing down roadblocks).
· You can push through a crisis.
Cons of autocratic leadership –
· It’s a one-leader show.
· You do all the thinking, which is exhausting.
· You micromanage, which nobody likes.
· You diminish others’ potential, which makes them dependent.
· You minimise the combined intelligence of the team, which dumbs it down.
· You lose staff due to low morale, which is a sign of a toxic work culture.
Example of an autocratic leader: Former U.S. Navy captain L.David Marquet said that under this command-and-control style of leadership he was exhausted as he had “one thinker and 134 doers”. As a respectful yet autocratic leader he was the one doing all the thinking for his 134 crew of passive ‘doers’. When he changed to a more empowering style of leadership, he “had 135 thinkers”. This leadership style change became the basis for his book Turn The Ship Around, and the Santa Fe crew rose to become the top performers of the U.S. Navy submarine fleet.
What do we think?
Autocratic leadership seems effective because the “authority bias” in humans is strong.
“If a superior tells you to do something, by God we tend to follow it,” says Daniel Coyle in our interview on his book The Culture Code. But it’s not a reliable way to make good decisions because the truth might be hidden from you. Look at how Captain Marquet’s team tried to execute on an order despite knowing the equipment configuration on the Santa Fe made it impossible to carry out.
Unlike the autocratic style, a democratic leadership style is inclusive and empowering. It’s also known as ‘participative leadership style’ as followers are encouraged to participate in debates and discussions before a decision is made.
At Growth Faculty’s live virtual event Patrick Lencioni, author of The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, told us participation leads to more ‘buy-in’ (honest emotional support). A democratic leader may make the final decision, but they get better buy-in because everyone has had a chance to air their views.
Pros of democratic leadership style –
· Helps others move forward in their own leadership development – which leads to better employee engagement and job satisfaction.
· Shows the leader is humble enough to admit they don’t have all the answers.
· Role models learning and having a growth mindset.
· Offers an opportunity for diverse thinking.
Cons of democratic leadership style –
· Can cause “death by meeting” where the organisation is bogged down by seeking consensus at every meeting
· It can lead to lost productivity if the leader is not disciplined about moving the discussion along.
· Democratic leaders can lose faith in their own ability to make decisions without team input.
Example of a democratic leader: Brian Chesky, cofounder of Airbnb, tried to arrive at a consensus decision after a well-publicised in 2011: A renter had trashed a host’s apartment and stolen her identity. Airbnb’s executive team participated in debates on a response for four weeks before Chesky, with the input of a venture capitalist, decided to take a position, and implemented a $50,000 protection package for hosts.
What do we think?
A democratic leader who is humble enough to admit they don’t know all the answers is ideal for a Volatile, Unpredictable, Complex, and Ambiguous (VUCA) world. By seeking out a range of viewpoints and diverse opinions, their company will stay agile and relevant. In a crisis, as Chesky did, the democratic leader can take the reins when needed.
When business-as-usual is disrupted a mix of leadership styles is ideal. Situational leaders have multiple competencies they can bring to bear in times of crisis. In practice, this means that while sometimes a leader will need to focus heavily on workflow and performance to ‘get the job done’, at other times the same leader will need to focus on how the team members are feeling and will ensure they are emotionally supported to keep morale and productivity high. (S.Bell, 2019) Depending on the capabilities of their team and the task at hand, the situational leader will select from leadership styles that best suit the person and situation.
Ken Blanchard and Paul Hersey first described situational leadership theory in the 70s, which was revised as ‘Situational Leadership II’ in 1982 to:
· Directing – giving instructions to those developing competence and confidence.
· Coaching – explaining decisions to those developing competence and confidence.
· Supporting – sharing ideas with those at higher competence levels.
· Delegating – turning over decisions those at higher competence levels.
Situational leadership is flexible and is tailored to meet everyone’s needs.
Pros of situational leadership:
· Appreciates that employees grow and develop and leadership must keep up.
· Strong focus on understanding individual team members (and their daily needs).
· Higher levels of morale and employee satisfaction will result.
· Ability to both develop and challenge employees, as needed.
· Highly agile and adaptive in a crisis.
· Decisive but also collaborative when needed.
Cons of situational leadership:
· Assessing someone’s development level incorrectly could lead to problems.
· Directing and coaching requires a courageous leader.
· May be too focused on the here and now, not overall, or long-term strategy.
· Employees change depending on the tasks, so switching leadership styles to keep up could confuse the team.
· Leader may be stronger in some leadership styles than others.
Example of situational leadership: While Sir Richard Branson’s leadership style is described as participative or democratic, he has a unique, hybrid model of leadership. Sir Richard adapts his style as needed. Keen on building confidence in others, Sir Richard “believes in the art of delegation” so followers can grow their leadership skills, but he also makes a point of knowing and learning from his people at all levels (he carries a notebook with him for this purpose). Countering any perception of his leadership being all about fun and laughs, Sir Richard is not afraid of tough conversations or decisions.
“There will be times when strong and decisive leadership is necessary, to make sure the right moves are made,” he wrote in the Telegraph.
What do we think?
Growth Faculty hosted Kieran Flanagan and Dan Gregory on our book club to discuss Forever Skills - and we reckon they put it better than we ever could:
“Bothering to understand as many human beings around you as you can is a crucial skill.”
By getting to know your team intimately, situational leaders bringing out the best in them as they grow and develop. Growth Faculty has helpful events that develop leaders. See our Leadership Pass.
Unlike transformational leaders, transactional leaders are not greatly interested in their people’s lives and problems. Instead, their primary concern is keeping the status quo and making day-to-day progress toward goals. They value order and structure so transactional leadership traits include focusing on workflow, organising resources, performance-related tasks and goals, and ensuring compliance with rules.
It’s a highly directional style (‘You do this’) relying on rewards or punishments to motivate.
Pros of transactional leadership:
· Practical style of leadership.
· Effective at short term goals.
· Suits areas like project management, sales, or manufacturing, where timeframes, quotas or goals must be met.
· Removes the risk of confusion and guesswork.
· Expectations are clearly defined.
Cons of transactional leadership:
· They tend to think inside the box when solving problems.
· May ignore developing team members.
· Could downplay need for team-building activities.
· Doesn’t allow much room for co-creation and creativity.
· Can create a tense environment of meeting expectations.
Example of a transactional leader: Microsoft founder Bill Gates is often named as an example of a leader with transactional leadership characteristics. Although he later adopted a more transformational style of leadership, he initially liked to exert control to ensure goals and targets were met and was known to reward staff with merchandise. Bill Gates also maintained a strict chain of command.
What do we think?
While transactional leaders are highly effective in reaching short-term goals and an asset to any organisation, their further potential could be realised with further leadership training – especially in the areas of humility and self-awareness. World-renowned researcher Jim Collins, author of Good to Great, might put transactional leaders lower than Level 5 in his 5-level hierarchy of leadership. For a deep dive into Level 5 leadership, make sure you book Jim Collins's event.
When your main priority is to serve rather than to lead, you are a servant leader. Coined by Robert K. Greenleaf in 1970, servant leadership is about the ‘Why’ of change, not the ‘How’ or ‘What’. It’s more powerful than it sounds, in fact it can change the world. Servant leaders include Mahatma Gandhi, Harriet Tubman, the Dalai Lama, and Nelson Mandela. Servant leaders connect to people’s innermost values and shared purpose to help them achieve their goals.
Research published in ScienceDirect shows 3 features make up the essence of servant leadership:
Starkly different to other leadership styles, servant leaders have an orientation towards others. Their motivation is not focused in on themselves. It’s about someone or something other than the leader.
Servant leaders use one-on-one interactions with followers to help them grow in areas such as their psychological wellbeing, emotional maturity, and ethical wisdom.
With a mindset reflecting that of a trustee, servant leaders ensure that both their followers and other resources within the organisation will be responsibly cultivated and grown.
Pros of servant leadership style:
· Mobilises talented people.
· Studies show servant leaders inspire their followers to become servant leaders themselves.(Biddle, 2020)
· Goals are reached through empowerment and inspiration.
· Values are at the core.
· Boosts morale.
· Often leads to a high level of trust, leading to higher employee performance.
· Can enhance company culture.
Cons of servant leadership style:
· Takes courage.
· Takes time to build up the trust and relationships needed for servant leaders to be effective.
· May not deal well with conflict within the team which, when constructive, is essential for team building.
· Serving others without being recognised for it goes against human nature for most people.
· May not be suitable for organisations needing structure and discipline.
· Pushing your own needs and priorities aside constantly can be challenging.
Example of a servant leader:
Former Macquarie Bank executive Michael Traill wrote Jumping Ship to describe his story of servant leadership as the founding CEO of Social Ventures Australia. In our interview he shared 3 questions for leaders borrowed from his friend and mentor Raymond Drummond:
· Who are you? Think deeply about this.
· Why are you living and working the way you are?
· What might you yet become and do with the rest of your life?
What do we think?
Today’s world does not need self-centric leaders. Servant leadership puts values and the team ahead of the leader’s own success, and that’s a good thing. Bob Anderson and Bill Adams in Scaling Leadership list servant leadership as one of 18 ‘strengths that make the fundamental difference between effective and ineffective leaders.’ Servant leadership is up there with being a visionary, a communicator, having strong people skills, and being a team-builder.
If you value autonomy, seek out the laissez-faire leader. Laissez-faire is French for ‘let it be’ and in the workplace it means giving employees a free rein by “leaving things to take their own course, without interfering.” A laissez-faire leader might be an entrepreneur who’s so focused on product development they leave the team to run operations and logistics as they see fit. Laissez-faire leadership is the opposite of autocratic leadership style. Being hands-off, laissez-faire leadership (or ‘delegative leadership’ as it can be known) leaves most decisions to the employees.
Pros of laissez-faire leadership:
· Flattens the hierarchy where all team members feel empowered.
· Rewards initiative in employees.
· Team members often don’t need ‘go-ahead’ from leader so can speed things up.
· Builds trust and independence in teams.
· Empowers teams to think, be creative, and self-motivated.
· Employees are treated as adults, expected to do the right thing.
Cons of laissez-faire leadership:
· If the vision isn’t clearly communicated the team may go in the wrong direction.
· Employees may preference pet projects over hard tasks that get better results.
· Some employees may respond poorly to the lack of direction.
· If the team isn’t already organised then it can cause chaos and confusion.
· Can limit employees’ development if the leader is not noticing them, guiding them, or challenging them.
· Risk of overlooking company growth opportunities.
Example of a laissez-faire leader:
Tassa is the founder of a successful maternity and baby product company. An entrepreneur and working mother of four, Tassa is time-poor and focused on high-value client relationships and product development. She expects her 10 employees to do their jobs as they see fit, as long it advances the success of the company. While this has mostly worked, Tassa admits to making hiring and onboarding mistakes that stalled the company’s growth.
What we think:
Laissez-faire leadership may suit leaders who don’t have the mental bandwidth to lead, and staff who don’t want to be micromanaged. However, it seems too hands-off. Patrick Lencioni in The Motive said he watched in disbelief as an executive fell asleep for a long period during a meeting - right in front of the CEO. The CEO said nothing at the time, nor after the meeting. This is not effective leadership. While people like autonomy, few like anarchy.
Charismatic leaders are the highly persuasive and skilled communicators who can charm a room. But in his book BE 2.0 Jim Collins urges us not to confuse leadership with charisma. Some effective leaders have charismatic styles certainly, but he says some of the most effective leaders have very little charisma. Charismatic leadership style is just one way to carry out the functions of leadership. By assessing their followers’ needs, these leaders gain loyalty and devotion. A crisis often leads to the emergence of charismatic leaders who are seen as being able to ‘take the reins.’
Pros of charismatic leaders:
· Excellent communicators.
· Good at outlining their vision and whipping up enthusiasm for achieving a goal.
· Have magnetic personalities making them compelling to work for.
· Inspiring and motivating.
· Their people feel seen and heard.
Cons of charismatic leadership:
· Can convince others to follow them, even as the ship goes down.
· May lack humility.
· Shine so brightly they may be distracting attention away from problems.
· May put their own needs and ego before the needs of the organisation.
· Strength in a crisis may lead to a feeling of overconfidence and not, as Jim Collins puts it, ‘facing the brutal facts’.
Example of a charismatic leader
There is no doubt the late Steve Jobs of Apple was an effective charismatic leader. His charisma was in full force at presentations as he unveiled new innovations with the words ‘and one last thing’. He was able to articulate his vision, and followers were inspired by his conviction. On his return to Apple in 1997 he “conducted a ‘one man focus group’ decided which divisions to save and which to close.” (Daily Mirror) Given his ability to build a strong management team, he is widely described as both a charismatic leader and a transformative leader.
What do we think?
Communication skills, energy, innovative mindset, ability to inspire are all traits that are needed in leaders in the volatile and complex world we live in. Charismatic leaders have all this and can take their skills right up to Level 5 leadership if they can somehow match that charisma with “deep humility” – not an easy task for someone like Steve Jobs who had “an invincible aura of cool” (Daily Mirror).
Ethical leadership is having the passion, courage and conviction to ‘do the right thing’. Ethical leadership’s time is now. Nine in 10 Australian consumers are more likely to purchase ethical and sustainable products. (The Fifth Estate, 2020) Ethical leaders lead by example. They don’t say one thing and do another. This trust leads them to build a devoted and diverse community of followers. Leading with fairness, ethical leaders influence those around them to do the right thing (even in the face of opposition), they show up, they’re accountable, and they own up to mistakes. Importantly, preaching ethical values but ignoring the treatment of the planet, customers, suppliers, and staff are incompatible actions of ethical leadership.
Pros of ethical leadership:
· Improved and strong brand image
· Articulate clear standards of behaviour
· Brings meaning into the workplace
· Trust becomes the core of the company’s culture
· Seen to be reliable and thoughtful
· Attracts socially responsible investing (SRI) which is gaining momentum. Total assets overseen by ethical investment funds on behalf of Australian investors leapt 30 per cent in 2020 to be worth $1.28 trillion. (AFR)
Cons of ethical leadership:
· May be a trailblazer in your sector, so steep learning curve.
· Need the energy to ensure accountability in the team.
· If poor at communicating, may come across as ‘preachy’ not inspiring.
· Your standards may be higher than others so must work to ensure executives at all levels are trusted.
· May be alone on issues that are important to you.
· Need to be a good manager as some initiatives will be more costly to implement.
· Depends on the leaders ability to influence others.
Example of an ethical leader:
With a philosophy of ‘taking responsibility’, Brisbane-based environmentalist James Chin Moody is a great example of an effective ethical leader. James is co-founder and CEO of parcel-delivery service Sendle, Australia’s first technology B Corporation and first 100% carbon-neutral delivery service. James is a recognised expert on innovation, sustainability, and the circular economy.
“What we do now has a lasting impact on the environment and future generations, including my own kids.” – James Chin Moody, in GreenBiz
What we think:
In a world where emotional intelligence is becoming more important in the business world, ethical and mindful leadership is the way forward. Empathy for our planet, for those who work for and alongside us, for those stakeholders traditionally dismissed as unimportant, are all critical for human society’s survival. It’s equitable, creates better teams and ultimately drives bigger and better results. Most importantly, your customers will respond to it, and you’ll have a team of people waking up inspired and excited to come to work.
In a competitive, disruptive, fast-changing world, a leadership style that can cope with the new and unknown is required. Adaptive leaders are great with people, and capable of shifts that move an organisation towards a future state. For example, with such changes as work from home and the war on talent, an adaptive leader creates the sort of workplace that will attract and retain the best talent. This requires breakthrough thinking, and adaptive leaders inspire people to leave the security of the status quo. They build a diverse team with a range of skills and talents, they align their employees’ passion with the organisation’s purpose, and they involve customers in their business.
Adaptive leaders tend to be open-minded, armed with a growth mindset, have high EQ, and are committed to achieve goals.
Pros of Adaptive Leadership:
· Flexible, agile, versatile, and resilient.
· Zooms in and out to ‘see around corners.’
· Able to discard outdated ideas.
· Lifelong learners.
· Sees mistakes as learning opportunities.
· Good at networking to bring in needed skillsets.
· Change is embraced and prepared for.
· Encourages teams to solve problems, which creates meaning and engagement.
· Has the emotional intelligence needed to inspire others.
Cons of Adaptive Leadership:
· Will have to balance innovation with the core business.
· May clash with more traditional leaders in the business.
· The success rate of business transformations can be low.
· Changes can be made too quickly.
· May break rules to implement what’s best for the company.
Example of adaptive leadership:
L.David Marquet is an example of an adaptive leader. He transformed the Santa Fe by discarding outdated ideas that diminished the motivation, safety, and potential of those in his charge.
Here's another example. Former Qantas captain Richard de Crespigny, author of QF32 and Fly!, put his adaptive leadership skills to work in a real-life “black swan” crisis. He was piloting the A380 that had an uncontained engine failure while in the air. Explosions damaged 21 of the aircraft’s 22 systems, he told Growth Faculty’s book club. It required Captain de Crespigny to ignore the warning horns and use his lifelong passion for learning, his ability to mobilise a team of expert pilots, and his own ‘stress-proof deliberate practice’ to bring the plane safely to land.
“Remember there is no such thing as an unimaginable crisis.” – Captain Richard de Crespigny, Fly!
What we think:
The Covid pandemic has shown how adaptive leadership can save a company. Our own pivot from in-person to live virtual events saved the company and required adaptive leadership from Managing Director Karen Beattie and the leadership team. As well, the aspect of lifelong learning in adaptive leadership makes us here at Growth Faculty big fans. Adaptability requires the humility to admit mistakes, and adaptive leaders can only build stronger cultures by showing this vulnerable side of themselves.
When a leader tries to control how others see them, they come across as inauthentic. Being an authentic leader is about being genuine. It’s about integrity. It’s about sincerity. Like the ethical leader, the authentic leader values transparency and strong values, and also assumes positive intent in others. They make sure everyone is noticed and participating. The authentic leader is self-aware, empathetic, and looks for opportunities to express genuine gratitude and appreciation.
Pros of Authentic Leadership:
· Trust is high.
· There’s transparency in leader-follower interactions.
· They give others credit for successes.
· They express gratitude and are not afraid to praise.
· They see their people as human.
· They encourage and reward honesty.
· They create a psychologically safe workplace.
· Engagement between employees is often enhanced
· They offer consistency.
· Lifelong learners – genuinely keen to improve.
Cons of Authentic Leadership:
· The term itself is under question, given it suggests this leadership is ‘the real thing’ and others are not. (Business Bliss consultants, 2018)
· May be too self-critical.
· May struggle to work with inauthentic people in their team.
Example of an Authentic Leader:
Laura Huang, author of Edge, was interviewed by Growth Faculty on how she leads by engaging with others authentically.
“Be okay with being authentic to your own thoughts and interests,” she says. “Give yourself permission to demonstrate your own personality, and trust that your words and actions will delight even if they’re at odds with another person’s interests. We can only delight with our authentic selves, rather than hollowing ourselves out to please others.”
What do we think?
As Laura says, it’s inevitable that we will be affected by how others perceive us when we are merely trying to ‘be ourselves.’ Authentic leadership takes courage to receive those perceptions while not changing who you are. Being around authenticity is compelling, and respectful of followers.
How to Develop Your Own Leadership Style?
We’ve just been talking about authenticity in leadership. This is the key to developing your own leadership style. Only you can truly understand what drives your passion and makes you a person others will follow. As Jim Collins told Growth Faculty ahead of his August Good to Great event, to become a Level 5 leader (the highest level of leadership) “find something you are truly, truly passionate about. And then, ask ‘How can I take this capability and these passions and deploy them in pursuit of a cause where I can be truly useful’.”
To develop your own effective leadership style:
· Find your ‘Why.’
· Don’t fixate on one leadership style or type. Most leaders will move through leadership styles and one will emerge as the more dominant style.
· Go through our checklist of the 10 Leadership Qualities That Will Solve Challenges in 2022.
· Invest in professional leadership development with a 12-month Leadership Pass for just $398 AUD. You get unlimited access to 40 live virtual events plus more worth $7500+ in value.
· Study Jim Collins’s work on Level 5 leadership – the highest strata of leadership that empirical evidence shows does lift the performance of a company.
· All leaders have strengths and weaknesses. Acknowledge your weaknesses but play to your strengths. Develop the leadership qualities that empower others to step up and lead too.
· Accept you will make mistakes as you try out various leadership styles. Stay honest with your followers and let them know you notice and are correcting the missteps.
Why is it Important to Understand Your Leadership Style?
Leaders are said to ‘bring the weather’ so your leadership style will affect others more than you can ever realise.
Back to that research by Korn Ferry Hay Group - it shows an up to 70% of variance in a workplace 'climate' can be directly attributable to the atmosphere that leaders create through their style of leadership.
And, with far less friction in the movement of people between organisations, it’s important for leaders to “pull people.” As Holly Ransom, author of The Leading Edge told Growth Faculty, “There has to be a reason why people get out of bed and be a part of what we are trying to do here!”
Learn How to Master Your Leadership Style From the Best
It can take decades to find a leadership style that inspires others to work towards a common goal. A shortcut is to learn the skills and traits direct from other, exceptional leaders.
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As well as extensive references to information gained from Growth Faculty speakers, this article draws from a number of sources including:
Sam Bell, Chapter 4, Leading Well by David Pich and Ann Messenger, 2019
Ken Blanchard, D. Zigarmi, R. Nelson, 1993, Situational Leadership® After 25 Years: A Retrospective.
Sreejith Balasubramanian & Cedwyn Fernandes | Albert W. K. Tan (Reviewing editor) (2022) Confirmation of a crisis leadership model and its effectiveness: Lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic, Cogent Business & Management, 9:1, DOI
Michigan State University, 2021, Transactional vs. Transformational Leadership: What’s the Difference?
Charismatic leadership style of Steve Jobs, 2015, Daily Mirror UK
D. Rushe, 2014, Apple doesn't need another charismatic leader. It needs Tim Cook, The Guardian.
Ethical Leadership, Australian College of Nursing
Richard de Crespigny, 2018, Fly!
Eva, Nathan; Robin, Mulyadi; Sendjaya, Sen; van Dierendonck, Dirk; Liden, Robert C. (February 2019), Servant Leadership: A systematic review and call for future research, Leadership Quarterly, Science Direct
Ramalingham, Nabarra, Oqubay, Carnall, Wild, 2020, 5 Principles to Guide Adaptive Leadership, HBR
Adaptive Leadership, 2022, CFI
Business Bliss Consultants FZE. (November 2018). Examination of Authentic Leadership Tenets, Strengths, and Weaknesses. Retrieved from ukdiss.com/examples/examination-of-authentic-leadership-tenets.php?vref=1
Apologies for any omissions.